expenditure milestone points that can be ear-marked for system evaluation
would occur at about
the $1.25-million level (during the Study and Research Phase), after the $5-million
point (at the conclusion of the entire Study and Research Phase), at
level (at the end of the Design Phase), at the $15.7-million mark (at the end
of the Test Phase), at the $21.7-million level (at the end of the Development
Phase), and at the $23.7-million point (at the end of the Final Test
there are many early opportunities to reevaluate and redirect this program upon
discovery of unforeseen difficulties or better alternative approaches.
Paul Baran, On Distributed
Communications, Volume XI, 1964.
Paul Baran invented the field of packet switching
networks while conducting research
at the historic RAND organization,
a concept embedded in the design of the ARPANET and
the standard TCP/IP protocol
used on the Internet today.
Paul Baran's packet switching story starts at the Research And Development
(RAND) research organization. RAND was founded
after the second world war to help
the unique system analysis and operations research skills developed by the
US military to manage the unprecedented scale of planning and logistics during
that global conflict. RAND still maintains a high proportion of research staff
with advanced degrees, and provides
an extensive research capability capable of tackling a wide range of problems
1959, a young electrical engineer named Paul Baran joined RAND from Hughes Aircraft's
systems group. The US Air Force had recently established one of the first wide
area computer networks for the SAGE radar defence
system, and had an increasing interest in survivable, wide area communications
networks so they could reorganize and respond after a nuclear attack, diminishing
the attractiveness of a first strike option by the Soviet Union.
Baran began an
investigation into development of survivable communications networks, the
results of which were first presented to the Air Force in the summer of 1961 as briefing
B-265, then as paper P-2626, and then as a series of eleven comprehensive papers
titled On Distributed Communications
Baran's study describes a remarkably detailed architecture for
a distributed, survivable, packet switched communications network. The network
is designed to withstand almost any degree of destruction to individual components
without loss of end-to-end communications. Since each computer could be connected
to one or more other computers, Baran assumed that any link of the network
fail at any time, and the network therefore had no central control or administration.
Baran's architecture was well designed to survive a nuclear conflict, and
helped to convince the US Military that wide area digital computer networks
a promising technology. Baran also talked to Bob Taylor and J.C.R.
Licklider at the IPTO about his work,
since they were also working to build a wide area communications network. Baran's
series of papers then influenced Roberts and Kleinrock to
adopt the technology for development of the ARPANET network
a few years later, laying the groundwork that leads to its continued use today
by TCP/IP on the Internet today..
In another of those scientific synchronicities, Baran's packet switching
work was strikingly similar to the work performed independently a few years
National Physical Laboratory, including common
details like a packet size of 1024 bits. This idea was almost
to be discovered.
Baran later left RAND to become an entrepreneur
and private investor in the early 1970's, and founded Metricom,
and co-founded the Institute
for the Future.
Paul Baran has also received numerous awards, including the
IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal, and the Marconi International Fellowship Award.