By 1986, Usenet had outgrown its original set up and it started to experience growing pains. The original scheme of just three worldwide hierarchies --- net.* for unmoderated groups, mod.* for moderated groups and fa.* for from ARPAnet --- and the fairly haphazard way in which new names were developed was becoming difficult to administer...
The Great Renaming
created the modern Usenet hierarchies.
Until the summer of 1986, the administrators
at major Usenet distribution sites worked together informally to manage the
and developed standard procedures for tasks like adding new newsgroups and distributing
messages among the sites. However, from July 1986 to March
1987 the Usenet underwent what has come to be called "The Great Renaming", which
established the modern newsgroup hierarchies in use today. After this event, these
original administrators came to be called "The Backbone Cabal".
Renaming was initiated by Rick Adams originally because a file used to track
the newsgroups called "news/sys" was getting too
large to be processed efficiently. To fix this problem, the newsgroups were mapped
to a new hierarchical set of categories (in a similar approach used in design
the domain name system), and the
existing "net", "mod", and "fa" newsgroups were replaced with a new structure
that evolved into what is now called the Usenet Eight:
- comp - computer
- humanities - humanities
subjects (added ~1996).
- misc - miscellaneous
- news - news topics
- rec - recreational subjects
- sci - science
- soc - sociological subjects
- talk - controversial topics
hierarchies provided a convenient category to allocate pretty much any newsgroup
on any topic. However, as might be expected for such a radical restructuring
an existing institution, there was a lot of disagreement across
the Usenet with the decisions that led to these new categories. On 1 April,
1987, a message was
released to some consternation claiming that the renaming was going to be reversed.
of the purposes of the renaming was to confine controversial newsgroups to the
"talk." hierarchy, where they could be easily identified for censoring by individual
sites if they wished. This didn't work very well because people resented being
pigeon-holed, and so the talk hierarchy withered until the explosion on the Usenet
from 1995 onwards when the volume of conversation on the hierarchy began
to grow again.
The Usenet network backbone was created by Gene
Spafford in 1983, and formalized by him in 1986, as described below.
Gene Spafford Thu Oct 11 20:05 PDT 1990
Email from Gene Spafford to Thomas Truscott; Henry Hardy's The
History of the Net; 28 Sept 1993.
gs> Eventually, by the time of
the great renaming after the 1986 Usenix
gs> conference, I formalized the
backbone in a regular posting with a
gs> map and a description of what
constituted a backbone site --- good
gs> connectivity, carrying the mainstream
groups, and a commitment to
gs> stable news and mail software. These were
the same things I had
gs> encouraged earlier on, or the reasons I had
put people on the
gs> mailing list.
In late 1987, each Usenet site began to choose which other sites it would
connect with across the Internet and which groups it would carry, effectively
resulting in the development
of the modern Usenet. This is still how the Usenet works, so that each site supports
a largely common but slightly different set of newsgroups, depending on which
sites it connects to and which groups it chooses to carry. Most Usent sites
carry well more than 10,000 of the most common groups.