TCP/IP Digest Wednesday, 14 Oct 1981 Volume 1 : Issue 2
POSTEL at USC-ISIF
is really very important for everyone to notice the deadline for completing
the cutover to IP/TCP and the elimination of NCP from use
in the ARPANET. The
deadline is: 1 January 1983. That
is 14 and a half months from now. Really not much more than a year.
TCP/IP Digest Wednesday, 11 Nov 1981 Volume 1 : Issue 6
POSTEL at USC-ISIF
Subject: Disabling NCPs
has been some talk of "forcing" the move to TCP by various administrative
and policy measures. There was also a claim that there was no technical
way to force
the abandonment of NCP. It
should be pointed out that a quite simple modification to the IMP program would
enable the IMPs to filter out and discard all NCP traffic. As far as i know,
has been no decision to do this, but you should be aware that it is technical
open and efficient
TCP/IP protocol is the foundation of an inter-networking design
has made it the
network protocol in the world.
Who invented TCP/IP? The
history of TCP/IP is like the protocol -- interdependent design and development
conducted by several people and brought together as one. Following
the design of TCP/IP by Robert Kahn and Vinton
Cerf as described in the previous pages, DARPA contracted
three sites to develop operational versions:
- BBN. A TENEX/PDP-10 implementation led by Ray Tomlinson and Bill Plummer.
- Stanford. A BCPL/PDP-11 implementation led by Richard Karp from Cerf's group.
increasingly better versions of TCP/IP were developed -- TCP v1, TCP v2, a split
into TCP v3 and IP v3 in the spring of 1978, and then stability with TCP v4
IPv4 -- the standard protocol
still in use on the Internet today.
In 1975, a two-network TCP/IP communications test was performed by establishment
of a link between Stanford and University College London (UCL) systems through
a Satellite Network (SATNET) connection. In November, 1977, a three-network
TCP/IP test was conducted, successfully simulating complex, military-grade
communications and verifying the inter-networking
functionality inherent in the TCP/IP design:
- An LSI-11 computer
in a van driven down the San Francisco Bayshore Freeway sent the original
data over a dual-rate 400/100 kbps spread spectrum Packet Radio Net
- A stationary ARPANET gateway at BBN in Boston, which sent the traffic
over an internal ARPANET satellite link to
- A computer in Norway, which sent the data over an ARPANET dedicated circuit
- UCL in London, England, which sent the data back across the ocean
on the 64 kbps Packet Satellite Net using a shared channel on the Intelsat
IV satellite to
- BBN in Boston, when sent
the data across the ARPANET to -
- a DEC KA-10 computer at the University
of Southern California Information
Sciences Institute in Marina Del Ray.
Between 1978 and 1983, several TCP/IP research prototypes
were developed on the systems listed below, proving the protocol's portability
and ability to unify different systems:
|IBM 360/370||Bob Braden||UCLA|
|LSI/11 (Packet Radio)||Jim Mathis||SRI|
|PDP-11 / BCPL
|UNIX / C||Mike Wingfield||BBN|
|Unix / Macro11||Jack Haverty||BBN|
protocol was deployed to the ARPANET network with some persuasion,
as noted in the emails at the top of the page. Not all sites were preparing to
convert over their protocols, so Cerf, Jon Postel,
and the TCP/IP team turned off the NCP network
channel numbers on the ARPANET IMP's for a full
mid 1982, so that only sites using TCP/IP could still operate. To emphasize the
point, they disabled NCP again for two days later that fall. The full switchover
to TCP/IP was performed on January 1, 1983, without too many problems,
although a few recalcitrant sites were down as long as three months while they
retrofitted their systems.
In 1984, the US Department of Defense made TCP/IP the standard for all military
which gave it a high profile and stable funding. In
1985, Dan Lynch and the Internet Architecture Board
held a three day workshop on TCP/IP for the computer industry, which was attended
by about 50 researchers and 250 vendor representatives. This meeting helped
knowledge of TCP/IP in the computer industry, and triggered the development of
several TCP/IP networking products by different companies, starting the protocol
on its way to become a commercial standard.
September, 1988, Lynch organized an Internet convention that later became the
show. Fifty companies were invited to the first show to demonstrate interoperation
of their TCP/IP packages,
and five thousand engineers attended. The interoperability demonstration was
successful, validating TCP/IP's open design and showing that the network standard
could become a multi-vendor product. The Interop show grew tremendously over
twelve years, held annually in a new location around the world.
originally inspired by low-reliability wireless packet
radio networks, has now become now the most reliable and widely deployed network
world, and the
version developed in the 1970's remains the standard protocol in use on the Internet
IPv6. With the rapid growth of the Internet through
the 1990's, there
was a rapid reduction in the number of free IP addresses available
IPv4, which was never designed to scale to planetary levels. To get more
addresses you need more bits, which means a longer IP address, which means
a new architecture, which means changes to all of the TCP/IP routing software.
a major change on which everyone needs to agree, and does not come about
After examining a number of proposals, the IETF settled
recommended in January 1995 in RFC
1752, and sometimes called the Next Generation Internet
Protocol, or IPng, or TCP/IP v6. Since then a number of organizations such
as the IPV6
Forum have been working towards its widespread implementation.
By 2004, IPv6 was widely available from industry as an integrated TCP/IP protocol
and supported by most new Internet networking equipment.
began to be being received
TCP/IP v4 networks,
as discussed in RFC
3901, DNS IPv6
Transport Operational Guidelines, and RFC
3974, IPv6 SMTP Operational Experience in Mixed IPv4/v6 Environments.
Resources. Additional information about the TCP/IP protocol can be
- IEN 151; Vinton Cerf; Final Report of the Stanford University TCP Project;
1 April 1980.
- RFC 759; Jon Postel;
Internet Message Protocol; August 1980.
- RFC 760; Jon Postel; DoD
Standard Internet Protocol; Jon Postel; January 1980.
761; Jon Postel; DoD Standard Transmission Control Protocol; Jan, 1980.
801; Jon Postel; NCP/TCP Transition Plan; Nov 1981.
1180; T. Socolofsky, C. Kale; A TCP/IP Tutorial; Jan 1991.
- RFC 3449; H. Balakrishnan,
V. N. Padmanabhan,
TCP Performance Implications
of Network Path Asymmetry; December 2002;
IPV6. Some RFC's related to TCP/IP v6 are listed below:
- RFC 1886; DNS Extensions to support IP version 6; S. Thomson,
C. Huitema; December 1995.
- RFC 2460;
Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6)
Specification; S. Deering; December 1998.
- RFC 2893;
Transition Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and Routers; R. Gilligan; August 2000.
- RFC 3316; Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
for Some Second and Third Generation Cellular Hosts; J. Arkko,
- RFC 3513;
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Addressing Architecture; R. Hinden; S. Deering; April 2003.