"It was pretty
much an unmanageable child," says Ellen Hoffman. "I think back then
we all had hopes that it would grow the ways that it did, but none
of us believed that it would grow so fast." Hans-Werner recalls working
in an environment where "something that was brand-new and totally up-to-date
in the morning was completely out of date by the afternoon. That happened
pretty much on a day-by-day basis, because we moved so fast."
Frazer, Karen; The
NSFNET Phenomenon; 1987-1995.
The National Science Foundation's
enlightened management of the NSFNET facilitated the Internet's
first period of explosive public growth.
Starting in 1979, the National Science foundation (NSF) funded development
of the CSNET to link computer science departments
in universities not connected to the ARPANET,
an experience that familiarized them with the significant benefits of internetworking.
In 1983, the US military split off the network MILNET from the ARPANET, reducing
their continued interest in the network, and freeing it to become primarily
a non-classified research network.
In 1984, the NSF began construction of several regional supercomputing
centers to provide very high-speed computing resources for the US research
In 1985, with the CSNET growing rapidly, NSF hired Dennis Jennings to lead
the establishment of the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) to link
five of the university based super-computer centers to enable sharing
of resources and information. Jennings
that shaped the subsequent development of NSFNET: that it would be a general-purpose
research network, not limited to connection of the supercomputers; it would
act as the
backbone for connection of regional networks at each supercomputing site; and
it would use the ARPANET's TCP/IP protocol.
The initial NSFNET consisted of a network backbone built with 56 kbps lines
by a team from the University of Illinois National Center for Supercomputing
Applications (NCSA) and the Cornell University Theory Center, because they
were the biggest TCP/IP proponents, with help from Dave Mills of the University
of Delaware and Hans-Werner Braun of Merit Networks Inc. While 56 kbps sounds
awfully slow compared to today's Internet, the load on the early NSFNET was
correspondingly less as well -- there was no multimedia yet, and simple wireframe
and contour graphics were as complex as most communications got.
Ed Krol was the network manager for the NCSA when the contract
was received to establish the NSFNET, and led the team in the network development.
Among the first things they did was invite companies to a "bake off" to
choose an appropriate NSFNET router, evaluated
by a team consisting of Dave Mills, Braun, Scott Brim from Cornell University,
Charley Kline and Krol from NCSA, Dave Farber (a grand old man of networking),
and Jennings. The only viable commercial product was the Butterfly Gateway
produced by BBN for the ARPANET (see RFC
898), but it was far too expensive. However, Dave Mills had the job of
maintaining a machine called a Fuzzball which incorporated all of the approved
Internet standards, so in another demonstration of the difference between engineering
and science -- parameterization by cost -- they ended up choosing the Fuzzball
for the initial NSFNET router.
Krol subcontracted the NSFNET operations center to Cornel University, run
by Allison Brown and Scott Brim, and began ordering telephone lines and hardware
to be drop-shipped to each site. They held quarterly meetings to work through
the inevitable problems and issues and coordinate the evolution of the system.
Krol recalls that during one of these meetings, Dave Farber mentioned that
he had dinner with Len Bozak from Stanford University the previous night. Bozak
had mentioned that he had plans to build a machine that would handle a wide
range of network protocol needs, including TCP/IP, and might by useful on the
NSFNET. Bozak's company was called Cisco,
and later became the leading networking company in the world.
As part of the NSFNET contract, Krol authored the Hitchhiker's
Guide to the Internet to provide a help manual for NSFNET users, providing
one of the first comprehensive surveys of the Internet. In 1992, Krol published The
Whole Internet User's Guide & Catalog, one of the first best-selling
books about the Internet, and a publication that played a major role in popularizing
the Internet beyond the research and academic communities.
In response to the network's rapid growth, in 1987 the NSF gave IBM, MCI,
and Merit Network Inc. a contract to upgrade the NSFNET backbone. By July 1,
1988, a much faster 1.5 Mbps network had been established for communication
between the original supercomputing centers, plus seven additional research
networks: BARRNet, Merit, MIDnet, NCAR, NorthWestNet, SESQUINET, SURAnet, and
Westnet. The upgraded NSFNET connected more than 170 TCP/IP enabled networks
in all. Merit received a contract to manage the backbone, and traffic began
to double approximately every seven months.
In 1990, the military sponsored ARPANET was officially dissolved, and responsibility
for the remaining elements of the research network was passed to the NSFNET.
The network continued to spread among research and academic institutions throughout
the US, including connections to research networks in Canada and Europe,
greatly extending the Internet's size and reach.
As the connected network grew, pressure began to build to allow commercial
use of the network, which was prohibited by NSFNET management in order to maintain
use of the bandwidth for research purposes. In response to the demand, a number
of parallel networks were formed to allow commercial traffic, including the
UUNET network ALTERNET, Performance Systems International (PSI) network PSINet,
CERFNet, and NEARNet. Nearly all of the regional research networks eventually
spun off commercial entities. As part of the same commercial dynamic, the umbrella
Internet Exchange (CIX) Association was formed by CERFnet, PSINet, and
AlterNet to promote commercial use of Internet networking.
In recognition of the fact that the network was growing beyond its research
focus, in March, 1991, the NSFNET officially ushered in the next wave of Internet
growth by modifying its Acceptable
Use Policy to allow commercial use by "research arms of for-profit
firms when engaged in open scholarly communication and research". Between
growing connections to research networks and increasing commercial traffic,
the growth of the NSFNET over the next few years was rapid:
- By January, 1992, the NSFNET traffic exceeded 12 billion packets (1 trillion
bytes) of traffic a month. By November the traffic had doubled, and NSFNET
was connected to more than 7,500 networks, one third of which were outside
the United States.
- In December, 1992, the NSFNET backbone was completely converted to a T3
or 44.736 Mbps capacity, capable of transmitting 4 and a half million characters
- In 1994, the traffic on NSFNET broke the 10 trillion bytes a month level.
Starting in 1990, over the next few years the NSF conducted
a series of workshops and studies to plan for transition of the NSFNET to private
industry. The vehicle that evolved to support this new architecture was a set
of Network Access Points that acted as
connection points for the commercial backbones so that the network would remain
connected at the top level once the NSFNET was retired. In February, 1994,
the NSF awarded contracts for establishment of four NAPs operating at 155 Mbps
-- one in New York operated by Sprint, one in Washington, D.C. operated by
MFS, one in Chicago operated by Ameritech, and one in California operated by
Over the following year, all of the regional NSFNET networks migrated their
connections to commercial network providers who were connected to one or more
of the NAPs. On April 30, 1995, the NSFNET was officially dissolved, although,
returning to its roots, the NSF retained a core research network for research
only use called the Very High Speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS),
which went on to form the basis for the Internet2 project.
At its peak, the NSFNET connected more than 4,000 institutions and 50,000 networks
across the Unites States, Canada, and Europe.
Resources. The following sites provide additional information about