all began with a comic book! At the age of 6, Leonard
was reading a Superman comic at his apartment in Manhattan,
when, in the centerfold, he found plans for building a
crystal radio... Kleinrock
built the crystal radio and was totally hooked when 'free'
music came through the earphones -- no batteries, no power,
all free! An engineer was born.
Birth of the Internet.
Kleinrock is one of the pioneers of digital network communications,
and helped build the ARPANET.
Leonard Kleinrock received his BEE degree from CCNY in
1957, then went to MIT,
where he was a Ph.D. classmate of Lawrence
Roberts. Kleinrock published his first paper on digital
network communications, Information
Flow in Large Communication Nets, in the RLE Quarterly Progress
Report, in July, 1961. He developed his ideas further in his
1963 Ph.D. thesis, and then published a comprehensive analytical
treatment of digital networks in his book Communication Nets in
After completing his thesis in 1962, Kleinrock moved to UCLA, and
later established the Network Measurement Center (NMC), led by himself
and consisting of a group of graduate students working in the area
In 1966, Roberts joined the IPTO with
a mandate to develop the ARPANET, and used Kleinrock's Communication
Nets to help convince his colleagues that a wide area digital
communication network was possible. In October, 1968, Roberts gave
a contract to Kleinrock's NMC as the ideal group to perform ARPANET
performance measurement and find areas for improvement.
On a historical day in early September, 1969, a team at Kleinrock's
NMC connected one of their SDS Sigma 7 computers to an Interface
Message Processor, thereby becoming the first node on the
ARPANET, and the first computer ever on the Internet.
As the ARPANET grew in the early 1970's, Kleinrock's group stressed
the system to work out the detailed design and performance issues
involved with the world's first packet
switched network, including routing, loading, deadlocks,
and latency. The UCLA Netwatch program
later performed similar functions to Kleinrock's Network Management
Center from the ARPANET years, until it was outsourced to other organizations in
Kleinrock has continued to be active in the research community,
and has published more than 200 papers and authored six books.
In August, 1989, he organized and chaired a symposium commemorating
the 20'th anniversary of the ARPANET, which later produced the
1121, titled "Act One -- The Poems".
Kleinrock has also been active in federal policy making with the National
Research Council's Computer Science and Telecommunications
Board (CSTB) committee. He led the CSTB work in 1988 to lay out
the framework for today's Gigabit Internet networks, and led
the CSTB committee which produced the influential 1994 report Realizing
the Information Future; The Internet and Beyond.
Kleinrock was a cofounder of the original Linkabit,
and founder and chairman of Nomadix and
Transfer Institute. He is a member of the National Academy
of Engineering, an IEEE fellow, and an ACM fellow. He is the recipient
of the CCNY Townsend Harris Medal, the CCNY Electrical Engineering
Award, the Marconi Award, the L.M. Ericsson Prize, the UCLA Outstanding
Teacher Award, the Lanchester Prize, the ACM SIGCOMM
Award, the Sigma Xi Monie Ferst Award, the INFORMS Presidents Award,
and the IEEE Harry Goode Award. He shared the Charles
Stark Draper Prize for 2001 with Vinton
and Lawrence Roberts for
their work on the ARPANET and Internet.