a future device for individual use, which is a sort of mechanized private
file and library.
It needs a name, and to coin one at random, "memex" will do. A memex is a device
in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications, and
which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility.
It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory.
consists of a desk, and while it can presumably be operated from a distance, it
is primarily the piece of furniture at which he works. On the top are slanting
translucent screens, on which material can be projected for convenient reading.
There is a keyboard, and sets of buttons and levers. Otherwise it looks like an
Vannevar Bush established the U.S. military
/ university research partnership that later invented the ARPANET,
and wrote the first visionary description of the potential use for information
technology, inspiring many of the Internet's creators.
Vannevar Bush was
born on March 11, 1890, in Everett, Massachusetts. He taught at Tufts University
from 1914 to 1917, carried out submarine- detection research for the US Navy,
and then joined the faculty of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
at the age of twenty-nine. At MIT, Bush worked with a team of researchers
an automated network analyzer to solve mathematical differential equations, and
in the 1930's helped build the first analog computers.
Roosevelt appointed Bush to Chairman of the National Defense Research Committee
in 1940 to help with World War II. In 1941, Bush was appointed Director of
newly created Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD),
established to coordinate weapons development research. The organization employed
6000 scientists by the end of the war, and supervised development of the atom
bomb. From 1946 to 1947, he served as chairman of the Joint Research and
Bush brought together the U.S. Military and universities with a level
of research funding not previously deployed, providing the universities with large,
new revenue streams for establishment of laboratories, acquisition of equipment,
and the conduct of pure and applied research. In return, the military obtained
the advantages of rapidly improving technology.
Thanks in part to Bush's initial setup, the three lead universities
in this partnership for several decades were Harvard
University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University
of California at Berkeley. Through the influence of projects like SAGE
and organizations like the IPTO, the university
/ military partnership established by Bush naturally laid the foundation for
development of the ARPANET by DARPA.
However, Vannevar Bush's
most direct influence on the development of the Internet comes from his visionary
description of an information system he called "memex", in an article
As We May Think published in the Atlantic Monthly in July, 1945,
in which he describes the first automated information management system (see
of this page).
was a breakthrough revelation, an information centric application of electronic
technology not previously considered. The vision stamped by memex strongly
inspired succeeding generations
who built the Internet, notably J.C.R. Licklider
and Douglas Engelbart. Many leading
researchers realized that a memex type system would eventually be built, and
to help realize it. Only now, more than 50 years later, is Bush's dream becoming
with the development of personal computers, the web,
and search engines.
In the private sector, Vannevar Bush
was a cofounder of Raytheon,
one of the United State's largest defense contractors. He was also president
Institute of Washington research
organization from 1939 to 1955.
Resources. The following sites provide additional
information on Vannevar Bush.
- Bush, Vannevar; Science
The Endless Frontier; A Report to the President by Vannevar Bush, Director
of the Office of Scientific Research and Development; United States Government
Printing Office; July, 1945.
and Beyond -- historical and current research in hypermedia inspired
by Vannevar Bush's memex vision.
review of "Endless Frontier: Vannevar Bush, Engineer Of The American Century",
by G. Pascal Zachary.